عنوان مقاله [English]
The older Shiite seminary schools in Qom, despite the oppression of tyrannical rulers, decadence of social conditions, and petrifaction of the ignorant, witnessed a new creative and critical thinking, a movement arising out of our own bed of culture and thought and resisting against despotism and authoritarianism. The movement, rooted in divine teachings and in the school of Ahl al-Bayt (the progeny of the Prophet), initiated a reformist movement which is still thriving and in motion. This scientific and social movement is not similar to intellectual movements, with intellectualism being a non-native word which shows a model / models whose historical experience is full of dangers and pests. As a result, one cannot apply it the reformist movement of the Shiite seminary schools. Based on a sociological approach, the present paper is to study the characteristics and indices of this reformist movement. Shunning imitation, seeking truth, being realistic, considering the circumstances of time and place, and making use of various epistemological methods are some the major features of this movement.