عنوان مقاله [English]
The critical school of Frankfort and the school of cultural studies of Birmingham being affected by social – political trends of 20th century have been so efficient in regard with the political, social and scientific changes of contemporary world and the comparative study of these two schools through a critical approach will be followed by a logical and self-aware encountering with them. In this regard, it has been endeavored to state the similar and different aspects as well as the weak points through the comparative methods of convergence and divergence of Proszowsky and Teyun.
The two schools are discriminated from one another due to the existence of European foundation, belonging to 20th century, analogous cognitive principles, Marxist roots, reaction to the classical Marxism, culturalism, critical approach to the modern world in terms of the level of analysis, that is holism of Frankfort and orientation of Birmingham towards wisdom, the principles of epistemology that is the extra- narrative view of Frankfort and the destructive view of Birmingham, principles of methodology that is the mental analysis of Frankfort and the experimental studies of Birmingham and also the interpretation of human as a passive receiver in view of Frankfort and active receiver in view of Birmingham.
To end with, the two schools particularly the school of Birmingham have been criticized due to the violation of essence-orientation, no presentation of a criteria for the narration of researches as well as “independent” concepts, and ambiguity in the sense of “culturalism”.